miho25

Thursday, December 08, 2005

Practice Final

Now, the nuclear problem attracts people’s concerns. Although nuclear power is dangerous for the environment including people, there are some nuclear tests in the world. In the U.S., Nevada has a test site for nuclear bombs. It causes much controversy. I plan to write on the influences on the environment, or people’s health, and impact on other developing of nuclear weapons.

First, nuclear testing has some influences for the environment. According to Soloman (2001, p.1), during these 10 years, mushroom clouds were seen in the sky, and also “winds routinely carried radioactive fallout to communities in Utah, Nevada and northern Arizona.” These environmental changes affect people and other organisms.

Second, nuclear testing damages people’s health. For example, leukemia, thyroid illness, cancers are caused by it. There are some cases that cause fear of it. o evidence fears of it. According to Gubler (2005, par. 1), “ St. George resident Bill Endsley, who grew up in Cedar City and endured hundreds of nuclear blasts, said the radiation from the testing gave him skin cancers and melanomas”. Also, according to Libertarian Party Press (1997, par. 3), that tests “exposed people to enough radiation” to have a high possibility of having “lethal thyroid cancer”. Thus, nuclear radiation affects our health.

Finally, Nevada test site affects other nuclear development. According to Batt (2002), Nevada’s continuation of nuclear test urges other countries to start developing nuclear weapons. As long as some countries or groups continue to conduct nuclear tests, the abolition of nuclear weapons cannot be ended.

As we already know, nuclear testing is not good for the environment or our life. It causes some illnesses and threatens our health. It should be abolished for a safe life. We should think about how we can stop nuclear testing. To make a more comfortable world, we should deal with this problem and know the terror of it.

Bibliography:

Batt, T. (2002, Apr. 7). Las Vegas Review Journal.

Gubler, H. (2004, Mar. 24). The Spectrum.

Libertarian Party Press release. (1997, Aug. 8).

Soloman, N. (2001, Jan. 27). Pravda.RU

Stormwater Pollution

Stormwater pollution is a serious problem all over the world. However, many people don't know what stormwater pollution is. According to Hendrick (2005), New York City has stormwater pollution now because of storms from October 7 to 15. When storms hit the city, so many materials which include harmful substances were put into the sewers. Therefore, this pollution damaged the water. This is stormwater pollution. Water is necessary for not only organisms under water but also terrestrial organisms, and has strong connection among all animals. The city Department of Environmental Protection is struggling with the problem, and making separate sewers for storm and sanitary is one of the ways to solve it. The city has to think about more possibilities to solve the problem while keeping economic balance. The economic problem occurs when the city considers dealing with stormwater pollution.

Then, according to Connolly (2005), the fee problem for stormwater occurred in Volisia County, Florida. County Council members wanted to increase stormwater initiatives by 72 dollars. The County claimed that the fee was needed to prepare for new, tougher rules in coming years to make less stormwater pollution flowing into the lakes, rivers, and streams. It was impossible to complete the County's 25-million- dollar program for a stormwater project without the fee. Even though storm fees are common in other cities and the fee is comparable to other cities, some residents still feel it is too high. It seems difficult to make people understand to pay the fee for stormwater and cooperate to deal with this problem.

Thus, there are the issues about stormwater pollution in some areas and the efforts to solve the problems. People have to think how they should manage stormwater problems to solve it and decrease the damage of it in New York City. To prevent stormwater pollution and cope with this problem, there are three suggestions; preparing facilities, avoiding using harmful substances, and building a fee system. It is time to think about these solutions for the stormwater problem and act on them.

First, it is necessary to make facilities for preventing stormwater like separate sewers. As the article "A hazard to the environment" (Hendrick, 2005) says, it is an effective way to separate sewers for storms and sanitary in New York City. In addition, according to Brodbeck (2005, par. 26), in Ottawa, Canada, the city and the province of Winnipeg had no plan to manage combined sewers three years ago, although it has been "a known problem for decades". Now, they should hurry to renew the city's combined system to prevent from dumping untreated sewage into rivers. Making the sewer system is needed to deal with stormwater pollution.

If water and harmful substances mix and flow into the river or the sea, it will affect creatures under water. In addition, it also has a bad influence on the other creatures on the earth. "In developing countries, more than 95% of urban sewage is discharged untreated into rivers and bays, creating a major human health hazard" (Iqbal, 2005). According to Smaczna (2005), sewage and stormwater run-off have caused bacteria levels in the Yarra river in Australia to rise to dangerous levels. The State Government's Yarra Watch website showed "E coli levels on the river at South Yarra jumped from 1800 organisms per 100ml in August to 4400 three months later. E coli is a risky bacterium that can cause serious illness, including diarrhea and kidney damage. Safe levels are considered to be less than 1000 organisms per 100ml." The jump is caused by high levels of stormwater run-off. So, stormwater has bad influences for organisms on the earth.

I think it is difficult to separate water and harmful substances once they mix. However, it is the best way to keep water clean. Therefore, I think we need to make the system that divides them into clean part and harmful part. It is very useful to prevent stormwater pollution and helps organisms to live safely.

Second, people should try not to put harmful substances into the environment, in order to protect water from toxic substances. If pollutants such as fertilizers, pesticides, oils, and animal waste are mixed with water and flow to the river and the sea, they damage many organisms and cause serious water pollution. "Water pollution is caused by the discharge of excretory substances from industries, municipal areas and agricultural lands. These substances contain poisonous matters and they reduce the oxygen content of the water body on which most of the aquatic life depends" (Iqubal, 2005). The US Environmental Protection Agency reports (2005) that "about 37% of the country's lakes and estuaries, and 36% of its rivers, are too polluted for basic uses". This date implies that water pollution is a serious problem in many places and affects our lives.

Now, we use a lot of resources and produce harmful substances even though we know they are bad for the environment. We have looked for better life and relied on them too much. People have to change their behavior instead of depending on technology that has a bad influence. For example, we do washing in daily life, and we use detergents. According to Casey (2005), the problem is that phosphates, which lead to "possible seafood poisoning in humans", are included in detergents in the home, and we "pour 10,400 tons of phosphates down our drains annually". I think it is difficult to stop using such harmful substances completely, but people should try to avoid using them as much as possible. Many people don't care about whether the ingredients of detergents are harmful or not when they buy or use it. It is a problem that people do not have a concern about it. I think what important is to notice that people use harmful substances, and it connects to destroy the environment. People should realize how much our activities have bad influences for the environment. This is the first step to solve the environmental problems.

In addition, we need to use substances which are easy on environment. Some harmless substances have been developed these days, for example an innocuous detergent. They are very useful, so people had better use them. There is an example for using harmless substances in the US. According to Little (2005), "Middle Western and East Coast cities passed laws banning phosphate in laundry soaps". The prohibition spread, and now laundry detergents are phosphate-free. I think it is an effective model, because setting a rule like that makes a lot of people use harmless detergents, and it is also a good trigger for rethinking about problems.

Finally, a fee system should be set that will make people think about this problem seriously. It is an essential factor when we deal with the stormwater pollution problem, because we need money to do something for managing this problem. The budget is needed to make facilities and develop harmless substances. New York City is the most populous city in the US, and has a population of over 8.1 million people. So if people in New York City pay fees, it becomes a huge fund for the solutions of stormwater pollution.

In addition, people's concerns about this problem rise though paying fees. We have to regard the environmental problems including stormwater pollution as our problem, and understand that we have a responsibility of dealing with these problems. However, it is difficult to do that. It is one of the reasons that the environmental problems cannot be made better. Then, making a fee system is an effective way to catch people's attention to stormwater pollution problem.

However, it is difficult to make people agree to collect fees. According to Connolly (2005), there is a fee system for stormwater in Florida. Some people feel the fees are too high. Government should try to convince people to pay fees. Also, it is needed that people learn the influence of stormwater pollution. If people know the actual damage situation, it is easy to get understanding of paying fees. It is important that government make people be interested in this problem.

We face a lot of environmental problems, so we should think about them more seriously. Stormwater is a big problem not only in New York City but in other places in the world. What we can do to prevent stormwater pollution is making facilities like separate sewage systems, using substances which are easy on the environment, and setting the fee systems. They are very effective ways to protect us from stormwater pollution. A strom is a natural disaster, so we cannot stop it occurring. However, we can resist and reduce the damage of stormwater by our efforts. It is important to consider this problem as not a separate problem but everyone's problem. Then, we should start to do what we can do even if it is very small things. As the proverb says, "Many a little makes a mickle". If each person think about stormwater pollution and acts something, this problem can be solved. What one person can do for this problem may be tiny, but if it mobilizes, it will become a great power.

In addition, it is also vital to support each other. These minds help the solution of stormwater pollution and other environmental problems. If some problems such as desertification, acid rain, and deforestation happen in a certain area, they are not only a problem for people who live in that area. They are connected with all people all over the world, and they cannot be considered as a local problem. They are global issues. If people work on environmental problems more earnestly and cooperate with each other, I believe we can protect the earth, and it will be a more comfortable world.

Bibliography

Brodbeck, T. B. (2005, Jun. 26). We know who's polluting the water. Winnipeg Sun. Manitoba, Canada. Retrieved from Lexis-Nexis database, Nov. 30, 2005.

Casey, M. (2005, Jun. 14). Is your dishwasher a major danger to the environment? Nationwide News. Retrieved from Lexis-Nexis database, Nov. 30, 2005.

Connolly, K. (2005, Jun. 3). Council raises stormwater fee. Orlando Sentinel, Orlando FL. Retrieved from Lexis-Nexis database, Oct. 31, 2005.

Hendrick, D. (2005, Oct. 24). A hazard to the environment; Experts estimate that billions of gallons of raw sewage were dumped into the city's waterways after storm. Newsday. Retrieved from Lexis-Nexis database, Oct. 26, 2005.

Iqbal, S. (2005, Nov. 7). Affects of environmental pollution. Global New Wire. Retrieved from Lexis-Nexis database, Dec. 4, 2005.

Levine, S. (2005, Oct. 7). Low Toxin Levels Seen In Spring Valley Water. The Washington Post. Retrieved from Lexis-Nexis database, Nov. 30, 2005.

Little, M. (2005, Jun. 9). Consumers say no to phosphates. Tribute Business News. Retrieved from Lexis-Nexis database, Dec. 4, 2005.

Simmons, D.L. & Ku, H. F. K. (1986). Effect of urban stormwater runoff ground water beneath recharge basins on Long Island, New York. New York: Long Island Regional Planning Board.

Smaczna, U. (2005, Nov. 30). Sewage threat to Yarra. Stonnington Leader. Australia. Retrieved from Lexis-Nexis database, Nov. 30, 2005.

Sunday Telegraph. (2005, Aug. 14). Rethink your weekly shop. Sydney, Australia. Retrieved from Lexis-Nexis database, Nov. 30, 2005.

Wednesday, November 30, 2005

It's time to rethink US immigration policy

According to this article, all immigrants haven't had to face the same immigration policy. Although the United States is a country of laws that puts an emphasis on respect, they don't have complete laws. The problem is the US immigration policy itself. We should object to these laws and change them when they don't reflect moral values.

I agree with the idea that "we should also question them and change them whenever they do not reflect our highest moral values". I think the low vshould be protected. However, if the law is not reasonable and not right, it should be changed. There were some unfair laws in the past, so they were abolished and people made new laws. I think it is needed to change laws about immigration now.

Reference:
Letona, E.M. (2005, Nov. 12). It's time to rethink US immigration policy.

Wednesday, November 16, 2005

Stormwater pollution

Stormwater pollution is a serious problem all over the world. According to Daniel Hendrick (2005), New York City has stormwater pollution now because of storms from October 7 to 15. When storms hit the city, so many materials which include harmful substances were put into the sewers. Therefore this pollution damaged the water. Water is necessary for not only organisms under water but also terrestrial organisms, and has strong connection among all animals. The city Department of Environmental Protection is struggling with the problem, and making separate sewers for storm and sanitary is one of the ways to solve it. The city has to think about more possibilities to solve the problem while keeping economic balance. The economic problem occurs when the city considers dealing with stormwater pollution. Then, according to Kevin P. Connolly (2005), the fee problem for stormwater occurred in Volusia, Florida. County Council members wanted to increase stormwater initiatives by 72 dollars. The County claimed that the fee was needed to prepare for new, tougher rules in coming years to make less stormwater pollution flowing into the lakes, rivers, and streams. It was impossible to complete the County’s 25-million-dollar program for a stormwater project without the fee. Even though storm fees are common in other cities and the fee is comparable to other cities, some residents still feel it is too high. Thus, there are the issues about stormwater pollution in some areas and the efforts to solve the problems.

People have to think how they should manage stormwater problems to solve it and decrease the damage of it in New York City.

First, it is necessary to make facilities for preventing stormwater like separate sewers. As the article “A hazard to the environment” says it is an effective way to separate sewers for storms and sanitary. If water and harmful substances mix and flow into the river or the sea, it will affect creatures under water. In addition, it also has a bad influence on other creatures on the earth. I think it is difficult to separate water and harmful substances once they mix. However, it is the best way to keep water clean. Therefore, I think we need to make the system that divides them into clean part and harmful part.

Second, people should try not to put harmful substances into the environment, in order to protect water from toxic substances. We use a lot of resources and produce substances which are bad for the environment. If these pollutants like fertilizers, pesticides, oils, and animal waste are mixed with water and flow to the river and the sea, they damage many organisms and cause serious water pollution. I think we need to use stuff which is easy on the environment. Some harmless substances have been developed these days, for example an innocuous detergent. They are very useful, so people had better use them. It helps to keep the environment clean.

Finally, a fee system should be set and make people think about this problem seriously. It is an essential factor when we deal with the stormwater pollution problem, because we cannot do anything without money. The budget is needed to make facilities and develop harmless substances. New York City has a large population, so if people in New York City pay fees, it becomes a huge fund for the solution of stormwater pollution. In addition, people’s concerns about this problem rise through paying fees. It is important to prepare for stormwater pollution as much as possible before it occurs.

We face a lot of environmental problems, so we should think about them seriously. Stormwater is a big problem not only in New York City but in other places in the world. What we can do to prevent stormwater pollution is making facilities like separate sewage systems, using substances which are easy on the environment, and setting the fee systems. It is important to consider this problem as not a separate problem but everyone’s problem. In addition, it is also vital to support each other. These minds help the solution of stormwater pollution and other environmental problems. If people do so, I believe it will be a more comfortable world.


Reference:
Connolly, K. (2005, Jun. 3). Council raises stormwater fee. Orlando Sentinel, Orlando FL. Retrieved from Lexis-Nexis database, Oct. 31, 2005
Hendrick, D. (2005, Oct. 24). A hazard to the environment; Experts estimate that billions of gallons of raw sewage were dumped into the city’s waterways after storm. Newsday. Retrieved from Lexis-Nexis database, Oct. 26, 2005.

Monday, November 14, 2005

Research Proposal

Before the teacher told me about stormwater pollution problem in the class, I hadn’t known what stormwater was, or even the name of that problem. As I looked for the article about stormwater, I started to be interested in this problem. Stormwater pollution is a serious problem all over the world, According to Daniel Hendrick (2005), New York City has a stormwater pollution now because of storms from October 7 to 15. When storms hit the city, so many materials which include harmful substances were put into the sewers. Therefore this pollution damages the water. Water is necessary for not only organisms under water but also terrestrial organisms, and has strong connection among all animals. The city Department of Environmental Protection is struggling with the problem, and making separate sewers for storm and sanitary is the one way to solve it. On the other hand, according to Kevin P. Connolly (2005), the fee problem for stormwater occurred in Volusia, Florida. County Council members want to increase stromwater initiatives by 72 dollars. The County claims that the fee is needed to prepare for new, tougher rules in coming years to make less stormwater pollution flowing into the lakes, rivers, and streams. It is impossible to complete the County’s 25-million-dollar program for a stormwater project without the fee. Even though storm fees are common in other cities and the fee is comparable to other cities, some residents still feel it is too high. Thus, there are the issues about stormwater pollution in some areas and the efforts to solve the problems.

I plan on writing that there are three ways people should deal with stormwater problems. First, it is necessary to make facilities for preventing stormwater pollution like separate sewers. Second, people should try not to put harmful substances into the environment in order to protect water from toxic substances. Finally, the fee system should be set and make people think about this problem more seriously.

I have found some articles about the strormwater pollution problem from a website, and I could learn how serious it is and what people should do for coping with this problem. I would like to know more information that is some effective ways to solve this problem.

Reference:
Connolly, K. (2005, Jun. 3). Council raises stormwater fee. Orlando Sentinel, Orlando FL. Retrieved from Lexis-Nexis database, Oct. 31, 2005.
Hendrick, D. (2005, Oct. 24). A hazard to the environment; Experts estimate that billions of gallons of raw sewage were dumped into the city’s waterways after storm. Newsday. Retrieved from Lexis-Nexis database, Oct. 26, 2005.

Sunday, November 06, 2005

How to prevent stormwater pollution

In Volusia, Florida, County Council members want to increase stormwater initiatives to 72 dollars. This angered many local residents. Therefore, this led to one of the largest attendances at a County Council meeting in years. The County claims that the fee is needed to prepare for new, tougher rules in coming years to make less stormwater pollution flowing into lakes, rivers, and streams. It is unrealistic to complete the County's 25 million-dollar program for a stormwater project without the fee. Even though storm fees are common in other cities and the fee is comparable to other cities, some residents still feel it is too high.

I think that the County Council needs to collect the stormwater fee, because it is very important to keep water clean of pollution.

It is important to keep lakes, rivers or seas clean for the environment. There are a lot of lifeforms under water. These plants and animals depend on clean water to survive. If pollutants flow into water, it damages to not only organisms under water but also terrestrial organisms, because there are strong connections among them. Having clean water is also important for humans. Without clean water, humans will be very unhealthy. Clean water influences every organism on the earth.

The new stormwater system is necessary because it is easier to prevent pollution than to clean it up; once water is dirty, it is difficult to clean. There are many pollutants like pesticides, fertilizers and animal waste which are harmful for environment. It is necessary to separate water and them. Once water mixes these harmful substances, it is hard to separate them. Not only does it cost lots of money to clean polluted water, but it also takes much time. Therefore, it is the best not to pollute if at all possible.

There is something we can do to solve the stormwater pollution problem and the locals' fear of the fee. First, we have to pay fees to prevent pollution, but it must not be too high because it may burden people with economic issues. For that reason, the city should get together and have a fund-raising. Then the wealthier people would be charged more than the poorer people. Second, the city has to make facilities for storms like sewerage. In addition, it is a very effective way to use harmless materials. It is important to prepare for stormwater pollution as much as possible before it occurs.

We face a lot of environmental problems now. We have to think about them more seriously. It is important to consider some problems as not a separate problem but everyone's problem. Therefore it is good way to impose fees on people to solve environmental problems. Some people may complain about that. However, if we cooperate and support each other, we will be able to live more comfortably. We should do what we can do to deal with environmental problems.

Reference:
Connolly, K. (2005, Jun. 3). Council raises stormwater fee. Orlando Sentinel, Orlando, FL. Retrieved from Lexis-Nexis database, Oct. 31, 2005.

Tuesday, November 01, 2005

My Hero

My hero is Yuta Tabuse. He is a Japanese basketball player and plays in the NBA. He is small as a NBA basketaball player, but his play is admired. He confront difficult situations and continue his challenge. He never stop trying. I think he has strong mind and charisma.I respect him because he continues to challenge a difficult stage like the NBA.

Monday, October 31, 2005

Miho Hamamoto
EAP2
10/26/05

Urban Stormwater in New York City

According to Daniel Hendrick in his article, New York City has a stormwater pollution problem now. A large quantity of sewage flushed out all over New York City because of storms from October 7 to 15. Approximately one out of every two times when storms hit the city, so many materials were put into the sewers that the system of sewer networks could not manage them. The materials included toxic substances which could not be handled, so this pollution damaged the water quality standard. It is not only organism under water but also people that were affected. The city Department of Environmental Protection is struggling with the problem, and making separate sewers for storm and sanitary is one way to solve it. The city has to think about more possibilities to solve the problem while keeping economical balance.

Stormwater pollution is also a serious problem all over the world, so we have to think about how to prevent stormwater pollution problems.

First, as we read in the article, it is an effective way to separate sewers for some storm and sanitary. If water and harmful substances mix and flow into the river or the sea, it will affect creatures under water. In addition, it also has a bad influence on a lot of other creatures because the sea has a strong relation to organisms on the earth. I think it is difficult to separate them, but it is the best way to keep water clean. Once they mix, it is hard to separate them again. Therefore, I think we need to make the system that divides them into clean part and harmful part.

Second, people should try as soon as possible not to put harmful substances into the environment. We use a lot of resources and produce substances which are bad for the environment, but some people don’t care about that. If these substances like oil and detergent are mixed with water and flow to the river and the sea, they damage many organisms on the earth. I think we need to use stuff which is easy on the environment. Some harmless substances have been developed these days. They are very useful, so people had better use them. It helps to keep the environment clean.

Last, when we think about this problem, finance is a big matter. It is very high cost to make facilities to guard the city from stormwater pollution. I think it is difficult to prepare for facilities against stormwater pollution by per small city or town. They should cooperate beyond state or country to prevent pollution. It is important to consider this problem as not a separate problem but everyone’s problem. For that purpose, I think the government should make people notice that this problem is very serious and take public interest about this problem. In addition, I think government use more tax for environmental problems. We have to help each other to protect the earth.

We are confronted with some environment problems, so we have to think about them seriously. Stormwater is a big problem not only in New York City but other places in the world. What we can do to prevent stormwater pollution is making facilities like separate sewage systems and using substances which are easy on the environment. Although we cannot stop natural disasters like storms, we can prevent pollution. We have to struggle with these problems and support each other. If we do so, we can protect the environment and I believe it will be more comfortable world.

Reference:
Hendrick, D. (2005, Oct. 24). A hazard to the environment; Experts estimate that billions of gallons of raw sewage were dumped into the city’s waterways after storm.
Newsday. Retrieved from Lexis-Nexis detabase, Oct. 26, 2005.